|By Prabhat Ranjan Sarkar|
I have been saying for a long time that human society is a singular entity, that human society is indivisible. Human beings, because of their petty interests, prefer to remain oblivious to this truth. But one should remember that to forget altogether and to remain forgetful are not the same. So many near and dear ones, so many kith and kin, whom you had loved so dearly in the past are no longer in the world. Have you forgotten them? No, you have not. You remain forgetful of them.
Bhule tháká, se to nay bholá,[To remain forgetful is not to forget altogether. If a thought enters my blood or the core of my memory, it stirs up an inspiring vibration.]
Vismrtir marme pashi’
Rakte mor diyeche ye dolá.
Human beings remain oblivious of many things and events because if one remembers everything one’s life becomes unbearable. Judged from this viewpoint, such forgetfulness is a blessing to human beings. It is not necessary for human beings to remember the dark days of sorrow and misfortune, the calamitous nights of violent thunder and lightning. If all these images are stored in one’s memory, life will become almost unbearable.
One does not forget the fact that human society is one and indivisible, but one may remain forgetful of it. In most cases, forgetfulness is caused by the spell of selfishness. It is evident that the behavioural patterns of selfish people are the same everywhere.
People tend to classify human beings as rich or poor, educated or uneducated, etc. Those who are rich today may become poor tomorrow and conversely, those who are poor today may become rich tomorrow. To permanently divide humanity on the basis of poverty and affluence is therefore neither possible nor feasible. People whom I hate today as exploiters may deserve that hate. Under the influence of inauspicious stars, however, the same exploiters may fall to the level of the exploited. Did the same people change overnight? No, that is not the case. It is only a reversal of roles. They changed from the role of the exploiters to the role of the exploited. Conversely, those who are exploited today may become the exploiters tomorrow. So to divide the human race on the basis of such a frail classification is not feasible. The exploited have the same value as the exploiters. The only line of demarcation between them is exploitation. If we remove exploitation from society there will be neither exploiters nor exploited. The fundamental disease is exploitation, and once it is removed, there will be no further demarcation on that basis. The opportunists who utilize a situation to create rifts in the society will not get any scope to do so when exploitation is removed. That is why intelligent humans keen to promote the well-being of humanity will try to eradicate exploitation from the human society. Consequently, the struggle between the exploiters and the exploited will come to an end. Human beings will realize the supreme truth that all of humanity is bound together by common ties of fraternity.
At various times, we come across ideological conflicts among human beings. What does this ideological conflict really mean? Let human beings follow the path, the ideals, which appeal to them. If a particular theory or ideology is acceptable to some people, let them follow that ideology. Why should there be a conflict between people? Such conflicts should never occur. If anyone wants to drive a wedge into the one and indivisible human society on the basis of some ideology or theory, then this is nothing but a totally mischievous plan. Human beings can easily co-exist despite mere ideological differences.
Suppose there are four brothers in one family. Surely all of them can hold different ideas and views. Of course, these ideas and ideals should not be detrimental for human beings. Those ideologies which are harmful for the human race should never be tolerated. That would be suicidal. Different theories and doctrines with their numerous interpretations and connotations should be developed. No one should object to that, because intellectual clash and cohesion cause the human intellect to progress. Why should we keep all the doors of the human intellect closed? Let sufficient light and air enter the intellect for its overall enrichment.
Let us consider the case of race. Many people identify themselves with a particular race. If we look deeply into the subject we come to the conclusion that the human race is one. Some people have black skin, some people have yellow skin, and some people have white skin. Does it make any difference to the inner human being? No, none whatsoever. The same mother may have two children of different complexions, one fair, the other dark. Will she launch a racial fight over that difference? Will one child join the black community and the other the white community? Of course not. That would be nonsensical. The inner person has nothing to do with the colour of the skin. Differences created on the basis of caste are also pure deception.
Brahmańosya mukhamásiit váhurájanyo’bhavat;[Brahmans came out of the mouth, kśatriyas were born out of the arms,
Madhyatadasya yadvaeshyah padbhyáḿshúdrah.
Vaeshyas came out of the trunk of the body, and shúdras were born out of the legs.]
This is the interpretation given by supporters of casteism. The true fact is that every created being in this universe longs for shelter at the feet of Parama Puruśa. The shúdras who are also born out of the holy feet of Parama Puruśa certainly deserve to be revered by all. Hence, the system of casteism is totally baseless. The so-called scriptures which are based on casteism are equally baseless. What was the motive behind this? The only motive was individual interest. Later on, the totality of individual interest took the form of collective interest.
Next comes religion. On the basis of religion human beings group together and indulge in internecine feuds. Such religions are responsible for spilling the blood of innocent men and women. I don’t want to single out any religion as most do not follow the path of logic. Instead they prefer to inject a certain type of cheap sentiment into the human mind to cripple the intellect and impair rational judgement.
Majhabme akkalká dakhl nehi hae.[In religion there is no room for logical argument.]
In actual fact it makes the clear thinking of the human mind turbid. Religion has always commanded its followers to abide by its tenets. Those who dared show any logic were injected with a kind of fear complex. Moreover, the followers of the religions declared that their teachings were the revelations of God and had to be dutifully followed. Out of fear people submitted to this mandate. This is the basic defect of religion. On the basis of this hundreds of so-called scriptures were written in ambiguous language. Anything that destroys free thinking should not be called a scripture at all. Only that which develops the spontaneous development of human beings deserves to be called a scripture.
Shásanát tárayet yastu sah shástra parikiirtitah.“That which disciplines human beings, that which inspires human beings to follow the path of spirituality, the path of supreme benevolence, that is scripture.”
Anything else is not scripture at all. Religions create undue fear complex in the human mind. Utilizing the lure of heaven and the dread of hell they destroy nationality and humanity. Motivated by their own petty interests they create artificial divisions in the human society. Should intelligent people be bound by the serpentine nooses of such religions? No, they should not; they must not. If at all people allow themselves to be bound by nooses, it should be understood that they are intellectually bankrupt. In all countries of the world such people form separate communities. Perhaps religion has done the most damage to humanity. After all, it is in the name of religion that most human conflicts have occurred. Now the time has come to put an end to the conflict over religion forever.
There is still another thing which sounds a little harsh when clearly described, yet all intelligent people realize its malevolent influence from the depths of their hearts. It concerns the barriers of so-called nationalism. One day, Jessore and Bongaon were in one country [India]. Suddenly, a few people arbitrarily decided to put these two towns in two separate countries. Illiterate people living in Jessore heard one fine morning that they were Pakistanis, while the people of Bongaon, equally ignorant, suddenly, as they cultivated their fields, heard that they were citizens of India. This decision was enforced from the top without the prior knowledge of those at the bottom. Common people could not know anything about the crime which forced them to desert their ancestral homes forever as helpless refugees. They were unable to identify those who made them refugees.
What is the value of nationality when it changes overnight? Is it ever feasible to draw a line of demarcation between one human and another on the basis of such superficial considerations? Or is it wise? Such distinctions, imposed as they are from above, are mere figments of some people’s imagination. They are not supported by developed mentality and do not enjoy the sanction of higher human conscience. On such a basis we should never divide the human race. I repeat again, human society is a singular entity. It is indivisible.
It is often found that people who speak different languages co-exist peacefully within the same nation. Conversely, it is also found that people speaking the same language are divided into different nationalities. So it is quite clear that the question of nationality is completely meaningless and something devoid of rational judgement. One can safely conclude that anything not supported by rational judgement is prompted by selfish motives. Some people enjoy top positions without taking any responsibility or risk. They fulfil their own whims while countless common people have to carry their load, getting nothing in return. Once I said, while quoting Rabindranath Tagore, that the common people who are tortured, neglected, humiliated and exploited are just like the lamp stand, while those at the helm of society are like the lamp. Everything is illuminated by the lamp except the lamp stand, which remains obscure in darkness. Moreover, the lamp stand has to endure the burnt oil from the lamp which trickles down its side. Nationality is something like this. There is no logic behind it, nor, indeed, within it. It, too, should not be the basis for the fragmentation of the human society. Again I repeat, human society is a singular entity.
Next comes the question of language. Language is only a vehicle of expression. How does it occur? There are six stages to the expression of language: Pará, Pashyantii, Madhyámá, Dyotamáná, Vaekharii and Shrutigocará. Pará Shakti, the seed of all expression, lies in the Muladhara Cakra, but the seed is not transformed into language. It is just the seed of the idea. This is called Pará in Saḿskrta. Pashyantii, the stage where the seed of the idea sprouts, lies in the next higher Cakra, that is the Svadiśthána. In the next stage, Madhyámá, the idea is consolidated to give a picture to it. That is to say, people visualise the form of the idea they want to convey. In the Mańipura Cakra there is an urge to transform the idea into sound form. In Bengali we sometime say that such and such word is in my mind but I cannot articulate it. That is, the flow of the expression has reached Mańipura Cakra but it is not transmitted through spoken words. The memory, due to distortion, has become a little old so the picture of the word is hazy. That’s why it is difficult to transform the idea into language. In the next stage, that is Dyotamáná, the idea acquires the form of language. Dyotamáná means vibrational. In this stage there is some vibrational expression but the exact word is not formed. In the fifth stage, when the vibration reaches the vocal cord, the idea gets transformed into language. This is Vaekharii Shakti or the transformation of ideas into language. The last stage is called Shrutigocará and occurs when the word gets vocalized with the help of the tongue. These are the six main stages of the expression of language. In all languages Pará, Pashyantii, Madhyámá and Dyotamáná are uniform. Only in the fifth and sixth stages is the expression different.
So, on the basis of language, how is it possible to divide human beings? If an English-knowing boy is brought up in a Bengali family from his childhood, Bengali will become his natural tongue and he will develop total affinity for the Bengali language. Having listened to Bengali from the beginning of his life, the Vaekharii and Shrutigocará are adjusted with the Bengali language. Suppose his brother is brought up in a German family, then German will become his brother’s natural tongue. Would these brothers fight a fratricidal war on the basis of language? At the same time I will also unambiguously say that no language should ever be suppressed. If anyone tries to suppress any language the result will be disastrous, because human beings will not tolerate any undue pressure on their Vaekharii and Shrutigocará. No injustice against any language can be allowed. All languages must be given equal respect. One should remember that all languages are the languages of Parama Puruśa. I may master perhaps one, two, three or maybe 100 or 300 of these languages, but it does not mean that the languages I do not know are not the languages of Parama Puruśa. Hence, it is absurd to divide humanity on the basis of language.
In this case, as in the case of nationalism, I will sound a word of warning. Petty nationalism is detrimental to human civilization and those who seek the collective well-being of human civilization should abolish the system of passports, visas, permits, etc. The consequences of such a system are not beneficial for humanity. In the same manner I will sound a word of warning that there should be no attempts to suppress any language. The same amount of freedom that was granted to languages during British rule in India has not been granted in post-independence India. Attempts have been made to throttle a few languages, and the result has not been good. Those who have perpetrated this sort of injustice should be cautious in the future.
So we cannot divide the human race on the basis of the rich or the poor, the educated or uneducated. Nor can we divide it on the basis of ideology. It is natural that there should be minor differences of opinion, but we must see to it that the differences do not obstruct human progress. If they do, they must be resisted with an iron hand. If they do not, they should be tolerated. Let human beings follow their professed ideals as that will develop human intellect.
Again, on the basis of race we should not divide humanity into black and white, into Aryans and non-Aryans. All human beings are equal. There are only differences in the colour of people’s skin. And as I hae already said, religion is almost a non-entity. It rests on quicksand. Spirituality and religion are not synonymous; rather they are totally separate entities. Spirituality is an endless endeavour to link the microcosm with the Macrocosm, and this endeavour in individual life will stop when individuals come in closest proximity to Parama Puruśa. Human society will never attain Samadhi collectively. It is never possible to attain liberation or salvation collectively. So in individual spiritual life what is important is the feeling that human beings move collectively and help one another. In religion the feeling is that everything of mine is good and everything of yours is bad. While fighting over this people lose their natural judgement. Humanity should never be divided on the basis of such things.
Next comes nationality. The idea of nationality is so absurd, so nonsensical, that it changes its form overnight. The people of Jessore became Pakistanis in one night, and the people of Bongaon became the citizens of India overnight. So the whole idea is useless.
Finally, language. In connection with language I mentioned six stages of expression. Of the six there are differences only in the last two. The other four are all equal. Furthermore, one should remember that all languages are the languages of Parama Puruśa.
Intelligent people should never try to suppress any language. The result of suppression can never be worthwhile. Intelligent people must avoid these aforesaid factors on the basis of which some selfish people try to create rifts in human society. Wherever there is an excess in this regard they should try to integrate the human society, because the process of disintegration of the human society does no good to individuals, society or to any part of society. The more human beings live in unity, shoulder to shoulder, the greater the welfare of the human race will be. Let no one try to suppress others on the basis of nationality, language, religion or anything else in any sphere of life. Let the path of full expression of human intelligence be kept open forever.
17 June 1979, Calcutta
A Few Problems Solved Part 3
Neohumanism in a Nutshell Part 2 [a compilation]
One Human Society [a compilation]
Prout in a Nutshell Volume 2 Part 7 [a compilation]
In case you want to learn more about the work of P. R. Sarkar, please let me know email@example.com